Spices have been developed for thousands of years. Mainly refers to tropical plants with aromatic smell or antiseptic function such as pepper, clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, etc. So how much do you know about spices? The following is the content of the knowledge about spices organized by Bailin Group, I hope you like it!
Definition of spice
Spice is a substance that can be smelled by the sense of smell or tasted by the sense of taste, and is the raw material for the preparation of essence. Spices are an important part of fine chemicals, and spices are also commonly known as aniseed.
An overview of spices
When it comes to incense, the first impression is mostly the scene of cigarettes in temples and Taoist temples. However, in ancient Chinese society, incense was not only a sacrificial and religious object, but was also widely used in daily life. Before talking about the use of spices, let us briefly explain the origin and production methods of spices in ancient China, as well as the common ways of using spices.
Source of spices
This is the satire of the ancient Roman poet Statius about a funeral for a pet parrot in a poem. The owner will hold a funeral ceremony similar to the Nirvana of a phoenix after his baby passes away. Reborn in fire.
It can be said that spices like cinnamon play the most important role in this reincarnation. This claim is not an exaggeration at all, at least that's what people thought before the spice was eaten. If you follow how various spices and seasonings are recognized and utilized by people, you will find that the reality is even more amazing.
It is a volatile and complex aromatic substance extracted from the leaves, stems, stems, barks, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots of aromatic plants, or the secretions of aroma-producing animals. The extraction methods are: ①Steam distillation and water distillation, which are widely used in the extraction of oil from leaves, stems, stems, bark, seeds and roots, such as mint, cypress, cinnamon, fragrant root, and cedar seeds. ②Pressing and cold grinding method, mainly used for oil extraction of citrus fruits such as sweet orange, lemon and bergamot. This method is not heated, and the aroma of the essential oil obtained is fresh. ③The solvent extraction method is mainly used for the processing of flowers, aromatic plant resins and spices. The volatile organic solvents used are petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone, etc., which are selected according to different raw materials.
The infusion obtained from the leaching of flowers, after removing the solvent, is called extract, such as jasmine extract, white orchid extract, etc.; From spices, it is called oleoresin, such as pepper oleoresin, celery seed oleoresin, etc. Because the extract contains a lot of wax and has poor solubility, it is commonly used as an alcohol-soluble incense ingredient. The insoluble wax is filtered off, and finally the ethanol is evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain a pure oil. Extraction of natural flavors with liquid butane, carbon dioxide and supercritical fluid extraction technology is a relatively new process, only applied to a few flavor plants. Valuable animal spices such as musk, ambergris, civet and castoreum are commonly used in tinctures made from ethanol. Plants containing essential oils are distributed in many families, mainly Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Compositae, Rutaceae, Pinaceae, Umbelliferae, Lauraceae, Poaceae, Leguminosae and Cypressaceae, etc. All over the world. For example, mint, cinnamon, laurel leaves, star anise, sage seed, lemongrass, sweet-scented osmanthus and jasmine, white orchid, orchid from China; sandalwood and lemongrass from India, jasmine from Egypt, rosewood from Guyana, Cloves from Tanzania, cinnamon from Sri Lanka, vanilla from Madagascar, petitgrain from Paraguay, lavender from France, rose from Bulgaria, spearmint from the United States and citrus from Italy are all internationally renowned. There are about 200 to 300 kinds of natural fragrances commonly used in the world, and more than 100 kinds are produced in China. Among them, jasmine, white orchid and tree orchid are unique products in China.
In addition, the spices produced by biotechnology such as fermentation process, such as butyric acid, butanedione, benzaldehyde, etc., also belong to natural spices. In recent years, these kinds of spices have been paid attention to and developed in edible flavors.
Including fully synthetic fragrances, semi-synthetic fragrances and isolated fragrances. Synthesized with chemical raw materials is called fully synthetic fragrance, such as coumarin, phenylethyl alcohol and linalool synthesized from acetylene and acetone, etc.; the purer fragrance components separated from essential oils by physical or chemical methods are called isolated fragrances, such as Citral isolated from cedar seed oil, cedarwood isolated from cedar oil, etc.; semi-synthetic perfumes derived from isolated perfumes or terpene compounds in essential oils by chemical reaction, such as those obtained from citral Ionones, terpineol synthesized from pinene, etc. Most of the isolated flavors and semi-synthetic flavors can also be prepared by the total synthesis method, but the aroma quality is slightly different.
The production of synthetic fragrances is not limited by natural conditions, the product quality is stable, the price is relatively low, and many products do not exist in nature but have unique aromas, so they have developed rapidly in the past 20 years. There are three main aspects in the development of synthetic fragrances: ① synthesis of natural products, such as geraniol (geraniol), iridone, etc.; ② chemical processing of bulk essential oil raw materials, such as pinene (turpentine), citronellal (citronella) ③ Utilization of organic chemical raw materials, such as coal tar products, petrochemical raw materials, etc. There are no less than 2,000 kinds of commonly used synthetic spices, and the output varies.
Classification and structure of synthetic fragrances According to the chemical structure, it can be divided into hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, ethers, acids, esters, lactones, aldehydes, ketones, acetals (ketones), nitriles, heterocycles, etc. The molecular weight of synthetic fragrances is between 50 and 300. The larger the molecular weight, the smaller the volatility and the weaker the aroma.
Minor changes in molecular structure, including the position of substituents, geometric isomerism, stereoisomerism, etc., can lead to differences in aroma, such as vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) has a pleasant vanilla bean Aroma, while its isomer 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has an unpleasant odor similar to phenol; nerol and geraniol are cis-trans geometric isomers, the former has a softer and sweeter aroma ; Cis-trans rose ether is a stereoisomer, and the aroma is preferably cis. The relationship between fragrance molecular structure and sensory properties is an active research topic by fragrance chemists.
Production method The synthesis method involves many organic reactions, which can be mainly classified into several categories such as oxidation, reduction, esterification, substitution, condensation, addition, cyclization and isomerization. As long as there are trace impurities with unpleasant odor in synthetic fragrances, the overall quality will be destroyed. Therefore, the refining of synthetic fragrances is a very important problem. The commonly used refining methods are vacuum distillation and crystallization.
The production of synthetic fragrances in China developed after the 1950s, and was concentrated in Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenyang and other places. The main raw materials used in production are citronella oil, linden oil, linalool oil, sassafras oil, cedar oil, turpentine oil, castor oil, fusel oil, aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols. There are more than 600 kinds of large and small products, among which Vanillin, coumarin, phenethyl alcohol, jasmonaldehyde and artificial sandalwood have a considerable reputation in the international market.