How to calculate the liquor yield rate? Rare is more expensive, the lower the yield, the better quality of the wine?
When making wine, the koji, grain, and craftsmanship used are different, and the final amount of wine obtained, that is, the yield rate is also different. Regarding the rate of liquor production, there has been a saying in the folk that "three catties of grain and one catty of wine" have been used since ancient times. But in fact, the liquor yield rate of liquor also includes "starch liquor rate, raw material liquor rate" and so on.
According to relevant standards, the so-called "wine yield" actually refers to the alcohol content that a unit can produce at 50 degrees in an environment of standard atmospheric pressure and 20°C. Nowadays, raw materials are generally used for conversion in production, that is, the "raw material yield rate" is used more. For example, if 50 kg of raw grain produces 10 kg of 50°C wine under standard atmospheric pressure and 20°C, the yield of the raw material is 20%.
Calculation of wine yield
Therefore, in order to know the yield of a liquor, in addition to the raw grains consumed, it is also necessary to know the content and degree of the liquor distilled under the environment of standard atmospheric pressure and 20°C. And to calculate the degree of conversion to 50 degrees, not directly based on how many catties of grain produced how many catties of wine to calculate the rate of wine.
Among them, the calculation formula is as follows: raw wine yield = [(raw wine degree ÷ desired degree) × raw wine weight] ÷ weight of raw grain × 100%, that is, 10 kilograms of sorghum distills 2 kilograms of 60-degree liquor in a standard environment , Then its wine yield rate is: [(60÷50)×2]÷10×100%=24%, that is, its wine yield rate is 24%; and if 10 catties of grain produce 2 catties of 50% wine, Then the wine yield rate is 20%, and there is still a difference between the two.
In the production of liquor, different liquors have different yields, and their liquor yields also determine the cost of raw materials. Generally speaking, the yield of bran yeast liquor is about 45%, the yield of Daqu liquor is generally about 35-40%, and the yield of liquid liquor can reach as high as 70%. Compared with other Daqu liquors, the traditional Daqu sauce-flavor liquor has a lower yield.
Among them, "five catties of grain and one catty of wine", and the seven-round base wine has a degree of 52 degrees or above. Therefore, its wine yield is about 20%, which is lower than other Daqu wines, and the food cost is also higher. This is also the reason why pure grain wine is more expensive than alcoholic wine, and the price of traditional Daqu sauce-flavored wine is higher than that of luzhou-flavored wine.
2.Concentrated is not necessarily the essence
So, from this point of view, "the rare thing is precious" and "the concentrated is the essence", does it mean that the lower the wine yield, the better the quality of the liquor produced? In fact, this is not the case, because although the liquor yield rate of liquor is mostly measured by raw materials, it is not only related to the quality of the raw materials, but also related to the koji, technology, equipment, etc., and because of these factors, the liquor yield rate is low. The quality of the original wine will be worse.
First of all, the higher the starch and invertible sugars contained in the brewing materials, the higher the wine yield in general. Different grains or different varieties of the same grain have different nutrient content, so their wine yields are also different. However, it cannot be used to judge the quality of the wine. After all, wine production is only the basis, and more importantly, the aroma;
Secondly, the better the quality of the koji, the better its saccharification and fermentation capacity, which can maximize the use of the sugar and starch in the raw materials to convert them into alcohol, and the higher the natural wine yield. The better the quality of the koji, the better the quality of the liquor produced. Of course, it is not to say that the quality of the koji of Daqu sauce-flavored wine is not good, because its high-temperature koji is more focused on flavor enhancement, and its saccharification ability is low;
In addition, the raw materials are not fully utilized during fermentation, resulting in a lot of residual starch and sugar components. When they are not converted into alcohol, the wine yield will be extremely low. However, when distilling wine at this time, coke pot, paste pot, and silt pot may also occur. Once this phenomenon occurs, the distilled liquor will have a strange smell, which is equivalent to waste;
Yeast, as a facultative anaerobe, converts sugars into carbon dioxide and ethanol to obtain energy for growth and reproduction under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, its products will become water and carbon dioxide. Therefore, the fermentation container is not properly sealed during fermentation, and when a large amount of air and bacteria enter the container, it will also affect the wine yield.
Because aerobic conditions are not conducive to the alcoholization of yeast, and when the airborne bacteria, such as acetic acid bacteria, enter the container, they will use the ethanol produced during fermentation as a raw material for growth and reproduction, resulting in liquor production. The wine rate is reduced, and the mash will also become rancid, and the wine quality becomes extremely poor. After all, "vinegar is bad wine";
Finally, poor brewing and steaming equipment, resulting in excessive loss of raw materials and inability to better concentrate alcohol, will reduce the yield of wine. However, the main brewing microorganisms that determine the rate of wine are yeasts, and the brewing microorganisms that improve the quality of the wine and further increase the aroma and taste components in the wine include bacteria and molds.
Therefore, the level of wine yield does not indicate the quality of the wine, because it is also limited by the influence of factors such as raw materials, koji, brewing technology, and equipment. Sometimes the wine yield is lower than expected, but because of problems in the brewing and fermentation, the wine quality will be worse. "Concentrated is not necessarily the essence", but how to control at all levels and improve the quality and yield of wine when making wine is what we pursue when making wine.
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