Milk is a healthy drink adapted to people's modern life.The development of dairy industry directly affects the vital interests of farmers, dairy processing enterprises and consumers.China's milk per capita share ranks 148th in the world. In recent years, although milk is growing by 20%, it is still a "poor milk" country. Therefore, the market has great potential.However, for a long time, because the cows with "four series" diseases, combined with the lack of scientific breeding management way, and because of a pathogen infection or physical, chemical and nutritional milk and improper, cause 78% of milk cows suffering from mastitis, make the development of milk cow industry in some areas has been lagging.How to reverse this passive situation?(four series of diseases are breast disease, uterine disease, anterior gastric disease and metabolic disease)
As diseases enter the mouth, so do cows. Cows absorb nutrients by eating dry substances and convert them into substances they need to synthesize the main components of milk and meat.Therefore, the fluctuation of dry matter intake has a significant impact on milk yield and beef yield.Many factors may affect the intake of dry matter, such as diet composition, environment, animal itself, light, protein, feeding mode, ratio of fine to coarse, etc., among which rumen function is the most important factor.High activity dry yeast specially used for ruminants is a natural yeast cell product, which can improve the rumen internal environment, effectively improve the production performance of cows, and improve immunity and resistance.It also has a certain resistance to all kinds of diseases that cows suffer from.For a long time, raisers have added yeast culture to ruminant diet to regulate rumen environment and increase the number of beneficial microorganisms in rumen.Therefore, the intake and rumen digestion capacity of cattle were improved.Ruminants convert forage and feed by-products they consume into meat and milk, and many whole mixed diets contain 40-60% concentrate. The higher the proportion, the greater the fluctuation of dry matter intake.Concentrate is mainly composed of energy and protein, carbohydrate is the most important part of the energy intake of cows.The rumen is a large muscle organ that degrades feed by fermentation.It plays a role in the production of milk and beef.Rumen is divided into three layers: gas layer, fibrous covering layer and liquid layer.Rumen coating is the main site of food digestion.The rumen has a special inner layer that contains fingerlike projections called nipples through which volatile fatty acids are absorbed into the bloodstream.
The rumen function of modern cow is very complicated.The cow is characterized by its ability to use forage, but the proportion of concentrate in the ruminant diet has increased due to production requirements.These modern feeding methods have put ruminant and rumen functions under severe stress, and the carbohydrate in the feed is mainly fiber and starch.The carbohydrate in the forage is mainly fiber, while the concentrate is mainly starch.Once carbohydrates enter the rumen, there are three types of rumen bacteria that may affect their digestion.Fibrous digestion bacteria, lactic acid utilization bacteria and lactic acid production bacteria.When the feed enters the rumen, the fiber digester begins to degrade and ferment the fiber, and decomposes it into small peptides, which eventually degrade into volatile fatty acids, which are absorbed into the rumen inner layer and provide energy for animals. Therefore, the fiber digester affects the amount of dry matter intake, milk yield and beef yield.The acid they produce as they multiply boosts milk production and the amount of fat in milk.Fiber digestion
Bacteria can also proliferate in the rumen, providing nitrogen to animals in the form of microbial biomass.Digestive fiber is one of the main functions of rumen, which has a direct influence on dry matter intake and meat and milk production.There are two common factors that affect fiber digesters and rumen function.The first factor is oxygen, and fiber digesters are strictly anaerobic.When cows ingest food, they swallow air, and the presence of oxygen in the rumen will produce toxicity to the fibrous digestive bacteria and destroy the beneficial activities of the fibrous digestive bacteria.If the PH drops below 5.8, fiber digestion is interrupted and the cow stops feeding.The second influencing factor is the rumen PH value. Lactic acid producing bacteria can degrade starch, and they can use the sugars produced by the degradation of starch in feed raw materials. These bacteria can convert sugars into lactic acid, thus reducing the rumen PH value, leading to rumen dysfunction and possible acidosis.When the rumen PH value drops, even a very short period of time will have a serious negative impact on the fibrous digestive bacteria.If the rumen PH drops too low, fibrinolytic bacteria will become inactivated.The longer the decrease in digestibility occurs, the greater the effect on dry matter intake.This means that the daily dry matter intake will fluctuate greatly, and the lactic acid utilization bacteria will eventually consume the excess acid. The rumen PH value will start to rise, and the fibrous digestion bacteria will restore their activity, but the fermentation process will be greatly affected.
Although the ruminant diet has changed a lot in recent years.Yeast can help the rumen in a natural way, yeast cells can adjust the metabolic activity of rumen environment, provide more effective nutrients, improve milk production and meat, yeast is added in the diet can get more energy from the same diet, with metabolic activity of live yeast growth in the rumen bacteria consume oxygen in the rumen and sugar.The consumption of sugar limits the bacteria producing lactic acid and the food used, so it is helpful to maintain the PH value of rumen. Yeast cells also consume the oxygen of rumen, help maintain the anaerobic environment, and adjust the rumen environment to facilitate the survival and proliferation of fibrous digestive bacteria.
Studies have shown that the addition of yeast beneficial rumen microflora into the diet will be increased by 10-15 times, and the consumption of sugar limits the attack of lactic acid producing bacteria food, so the rumen PH value can be recovered.Rumen environment makes yeast cells in a state of stress, so it is not conducive to their growth.Under these conditions, metabolic active yeast cells produce small molecules of proteins and peptides.These small molecules of proteins and peptides stimulate the activity of fiber digesting bacteria and lactic acid using bacteria.By stimulating the growth of lactic acid utilization bacteria, the consumption of acid was increased to prevent the decrease of rumen PH value.Under the condition of more stable rumen PH, the fibrous digestive bacteria would not enter into a temporary dormancy state.In this way, fiber digestion can be sustained and more stable.Therefore, high-activity dry yeast can increase the intake of dry matter of dairy cows and have a positive impact on milk yield and beef yield.