As early as 3000 BC, people began to use yeast to make fermentation products.The first product to be sold on the market is yeast puree, which is characterized by fast fermentation, but inconvenient transportation and use, and limited commercialization of the product.The yeast industry has been developing for more than 200 years from the point of view of selling yeast mud and making yeast as an industry.Yeast has become one of the most studied microorganisms in the world, and it is a hot spot in the research and development of biotechnology products and a model system of modern biotechnology development and genome research.
In 2012, global yeast production capacity (in dry yeast terms) exceeded 1 million tons and annual sales revenue exceeded $2.5 billion.
Since the 1980s, China's yeast industry has achieved a leapfrog development, with a best-selling global independent innovation brand, and the research, production and application of yeast products have reached the international advanced level.
Researchers at okayama university and tohoku university in Japan used an ingenious method to determine the maximum number of copies of all the genes in yeast.
The team used yeast, which has about 6,000 genes, to investigate the upper limit of the number of copies of all its genes, which means that the number of copies made can cause cell death.The results showed that more than 80 percent of the genes were duplicated more than 100 times, and the yeast cells were still functioning normally.However, 115 genes that replicate only a few times can cause yeast to die.Most of these genes are related to basic functions such as intracellular transport and cytoskeleton, and some are related to the production of intracellular proteins or protein complexes.The team argues that these genes, duplicated several times over, result in unnecessarily large amounts of synthetic or decomposed proteins, placing a burden on the cells, severely disrupting the balance in yeast, and causing yeast to die.