Temperature: in a certain temperature range, with the increase of temperature, yeast fermentation speed will increase, gas production will increase, but the highest do not exceed 38 ℃ ~ 39 ℃.Normal temperature should be controlled within 26 ℃ ~ 28 ℃, if use rapid production law of not more than 30 ℃, because more than the temperature, the fermentation tachycardia, not fully mature, the dough cover gas ability is poor, affect the quality of the final product.
PH value: the dough's PH value is best between 4 and 6.
Effect of sugar: sugar that can be directly used by yeast is glucose, fructose.Sucrose is converted by enzymes in yeast that break down into glucose and fructose to provide energy for fermentation.Maltose is obtained by breaking down the starch in flour by the amylase in flour. Maltose can also be used when converted into 2 molecules of glucose by the maltose enzyme in yeast.
Osmotic pressure: osmotic pressure refers to the extra pressure applied to the solution to prevent osmosis. The osmotic pressure of the external medium has a great impact on the vitality of yeast.Because the outer membrane of yeast cell is a semi-permeable membrane, which has osmotic effect, the concentration of the external medium will directly affect the vitality of yeast. High concentration of sugar, salt, inorganic salt and other soluble solid materials will cause high osmotic pressure and inhibit yeast fermentation.The reason is that when the concentration of the external medium is high, the protoorganisms in the yeast seep into the cell membrane and the plasmid is separated, so the yeast is destroyed and cannot survive.In this respect, dry yeast is more adaptable than fresh yeast.There are, of course, some yeast that can survive at high concentrations and ferment.
In bread production, the main factors affecting osmotic pressure are sugar and salt.When the amount of sugar in the formula is 0 ~ 5%, it has no inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation, but can promote yeast fermentation.Fermentation is inhibited when it exceeds 6% and slowed down significantly when it exceeds 10%. In glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, maltose is less inhibited than the first three sugars because maltose has lower osmotic pressure than other sugars.