In recent years, wine making additives based on yeast derivatives have been widely used within the enological industry to improve wine fermentation and wine quality. Yeast derivatives includes inactive yeast, yeast autolysates, yeast extract, yeast cell walls and mannoproteins.Yeast derivatives have been used as alcoholic fermentation enhancers, malolactic fermentation enhancers and organoleptic enhancers.
Inactive yeast, whichis obtained by thermal inactivation prior to drying，has nitrogen nutrients, vitamins, minerals and trace element that promotes alcoholic fermentation and yeast multiplication and growth, avoids stuck or sluggish fermentations. Inactivated yeast provides nutrients for yeast growth, helps yeast survival at the end of fermentation, releases polysaccharides and increases volume and mouthfeel.
Yeast autolysates are derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast biomass by autolysis or combined with heat treatment. Yeast autolysates have freer amino acids than inactive yeast.Yeast autolysates are used as nutrients during the rehydration of dry yeasts and also as nutrients during alcoholic fermentation.
Yeast extract is the soluble extract after the total degradation of the cytoplasmic content.Yeast extract is the excellent organic nitrogen nutrient to wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation. This yeast preparation richs in free amino acids, small peptides and provides assimilable nitrogen to yeast multiplication and growth, and avoids stuck or sluggish fermentation. Amino acids are also aromatic precursors to synthesize higher alcohols, acetates and esters. This yeast derivative provides natural nitrogen for yeast to face the stressful conditions (high sugars, lack of nutrition) and inhibits the production of negative aroma (H2S).
YEAST CELL WALL
Yeast cell wall or yeast hulls is the insoluble component of yeast walls excluding the cytoplasmic content. It represents 18-30% of the yeast dry weight.Yeast cell wall is made of 30-60% polysaccharides,15-30% proteins, 5-20% lipids and a small amount of chitin.
During wine fermentation, yeast cell wall absorbs harmful compounds (octanoic, decanoic acid and ochratoxin A) and provides growth and survival factors (sterols, unsaturated fatty acids), optimizes the fermentation performance, effectively avoidsstuck or sluggish fermentations.
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