Advantages of Yeast
Yeast has many incomparable advantages over other products in fermentation:
1. It improves the nutritional value of the fermented foods
Yeast itself has a high nutritional value for it is mainly composed of protein and carbohydrate composition, and is rich in B vitamins and other trace elements, calcium, and iron. See the table below.
Nutrients in Yeast
Fermentation makes the yeast bloom, thereby speeding up the yeast fermentation rate makes an increase in bread nutrition; yeast contains a variety of enzymes that can Hydrolyze starch and cellulose hydrolysis into low molecular weight substances, such as low molecular weight sugars, amino acids, alcohols and others easily to be digested and absorbed, hence improves the rate of digestion and absorption of the flour. Yeast is also rich in lysine, which can compensate for lack of lysine in cereals; yeast also contains phytase, which contribute to the absorption of zinc, iron, calcium by the body.
2. It increases the flavor of fermented food
The fermentation of the yeast dough, producing amino acids, oligosaccharides, esters, alcohols, acids and other substances, makes the bread pure and soft.
3. It improves the production efficiency and saves the cost
Due to the high purity of yeast, there is little acidic substances produced in the dough fermentation process, so this naturally eliminates the trouble caused by alkali. At the same time, yeast, with its stable quality and strong fermentation capacity, can significantly shorten the dough fermentation time to 1-2 hours, which makes possible the industrial production of bread and other fermented pasta, hence is popular among bread manufacturers.
Characteristics of Yeast
The fermentation of yeast in the dough is the use of carbon dioxide and other substances produced by the life activities of yeast, and the series of complex changes make the dough elastic and give bread unique color, aroma and taste. Unlike chemical substances, yeast has its own life and is a typical facultative anaerobic microorganism which can survive with/without oxygen.
As yeast is a microorganism, it is bound to need some living conditions. If we grasp its characteristics, we can make it service the baking industry better. The main factors that affect yeast fermentation include the nutrients, temperature, pH value, and humidity. Yeast nutrients are mainly carbohydrate, and yeast can only use monosaccharidine in the fermentation process. The little monosaccharide in the flour cannot meet the needs of the fermentation of the dough. The monosaccharide required for the yeast fermentation is mainly from two aspects: one is formed from the starch hydrolysis of the flour; the other is formed through the enzymes hydroxylation of the sucrose in the ingredients. Although yeast needs sugar substances for nourishment, but when we add an excess of sugar, due to the osmotic pressure of the sugar production, the sugar will inhibit the growth and reproduction of yeast, so the optimum sugar content in the flour is generally 4-6%. Like other organisms, temperature is the most sensitive factor for yeast; the temperature for yeast growth is between 27-28 ℃, the optimum temperature is 28 ℃. Therefore, the room temperature for dough fermentation should be controlled below 30 ℃ for the booming of the yeast, and hence for final proofing of the dough. The yeast activity is enhanced as the temperature rises, so is the gas production. Experiments show that when the dough temperature is 38 ℃, the gas production is maximum.
Thus, the room temperature of the dough fermentation is best controlled between 36-40 ℃. If the temperature is too high, yeast will die of heat, the bacteria will grow, while the fermentation activity decreases. With the growth rate of yeast varies in accordance with the dough moisture content. Within a certain range, the more water, the faster the yeast fermentation is, so the degree of softness and hardness of the dough determines the pace of fermentation. In addition, the quality of the flour, other ingredients such as oil, milk, salt in the dough are also closely related to the dough fermentation. in actual operation, these also should be noted.
Understanding the habits of yeast in the dough, we should do as much as possible to create a very comfortable living environment for the yeast to make it give full play of its capabilities and efficiency, to make baking even easier.
Usage of Yeast
1. Method of Adding
Yeast is most sensitive to changes in temperature, and its life activities are closely related to changes in temperature, its vitality and fermentation force vary with temperature changes. Stirring is one of the key processes affecting the vitality of yeast, and the dough temperature should vary with the seasons. In spring and autumn, 35 ℃ warm water should be used for stirring and activation, and the yeast can be added directly to the water; in summer, cold water should be used and in winter, hot water should be used for stirring and activation.
The amount of yeast is related to many factors. High sugar active dry yeast with amount 1% in bread can get better baking effect, 0.3% -0.5 for low sugar active dry yeast in steamed bread, stuffed buns. The more fermentation times, the less amount should be used
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